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Persian gene raazman | Genetic
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Genetic

Although the definition of genetic testing seems obvious, it can be seen that in our country there is not a clear awareness even among researchers and practitioners of different fields of medicine about genetic testing.   Therefore, the following definition, which derived from the definition of the US National Institutes of Health, is given below:

A genetic test is a type of medical test that detects changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins.

The results of genetic tests can confirm or reject the doubt of suffering from a genetic disorder or help to determine the chance of developing a genetic disorder in a person or transferring it to the next generation.

The main groups of genetic tests are:

  1. Molecular genetic tests:

Study genes or small DNA fragments to identify mutations or changes that lead to genetic disorder.

  1. Chromosome tests:

Examining chromosomes or large DNA fragments to identify the major genetic changes that cause genetic disorder, such as deleting or adding a copy of a chromosome or a part of it.

  1. Biochemical genetic tests:

Investigating the amount or activity level of proteins whose alteration in the amount or activity level indicate a change in DNA and lead to a genetic disorder.

Genetics is a field of study of how creatures transfer their characteristics from one generation to the next. Your gender and the chance of developing certain diseases in you are determined by your genes.

  • What is the genetic code?

The genetic code has four letters, which include: T, C, A, and G. These letters represent groups of atoms that are called bases and are located at a regular distance along the DNA molecule.

The composition and structure of living creatures are determined by the command of these bases. The words are in three-letter code, such as TCA. Genes are like long sentences written with these words.

  • What is the genome?

The genome is sequencing all the letters of the genetic code in DNA of a particular living creature. The human genome has about three billion letters. With the help of powerful computers, scientists have created special techniques for sequencing DNA.

  • The biography of Francis Crick from England (-1916) and James Watson from America (-1928)

In 1953, two scientists, Crick and Watson, by examining the Rosalind Franklin’s researches built a spiral model of a pair of DNA.  They connected spiral strands with molecules of T, C, A, and G.

  • Human Genome Project

The purpose of the human genome project is to produce a complete sequence of the human genome.

  • How can we use the human genome?

Scientists are using the human genome project to study genetic diseases (i.e. diseases that may be inherited), such as Cystic Fibrosis. By identifying the gene, scientists should be able to detect a disease more quickly and design more effective therapies. Having a fragment of the human genome means that scientists can recognize and identify the individual’s unique DNA.

  • Edit genome with high precision

Researchers have obtained a method to make exact changes in the genome of living cells. In this method, numerous genes enter specific locations and defective genes are eliminated. This technology can be an easier and cheaper way to engineer living organisms that produce fossil fuels. It is also used to design animal models in order to study human diseases and the development of new therapies methods. To achieve this new genome-editing technique, researchers have modified a set of bacterial proteins that typically protect bacteria against invasive viruses.

  • Unparalleled DNA

Except for homological twins, each person’s DNA varies from one another. By scanning about 10 parts (each with about 500 letters) of your DNA, scientists can create your own DNA.

  • Whether DNA can prove someone committed a crime or not?

The probability that two people will have the same DNA sequence in the 10 fragments scanned is extremely low. If DNA is found in the crime place -for example, a hair- and this sample corresponds to a sample taken from a suspected person, with a belief beyond doubt it can be said that the hair is the suspected person’s hair.